What's New?
Cancer Centre @ phkl Relaunch by Minister Health Malaysia
Datuk Seri Dr Dzulkefly Ahmad
15 November 2018


Dr Mastura Md Yusoff
Clinical Oncologist
The Star
8 October 2018
Early Diagnosis Saves Lives

Dr Mastura Md Yusof
Clinical Oncologist
Berita Harian
11 November 2017
Barah Payudara Metastatik Masih Boleh Di Rawat

Dr Mastura
Clinical Oncologist
Sin Chew Daily
11 November 2017
Higher Risk to Form Cancer at Ascenting Colon

Dr Mastura Md Yusof
Clinical Oncologist
Healthy Living - Women Health
September 2016


Radiation Therapy

Radiotherapy or radiation therapy is one of the effective cancer treatments that using ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.

Radiotherapy can be administered externally in the form of high energy x-ray or electron. The machine used to deliver this treatment is called Linear Accelerator.

A Linear accelerator uses electricity to form a stream of fast-moving subatomic particles. This creates high-energy radiation that will be used to treat cancer.

Below is a video courtesy from Elekta, showing how a Linear Accelerator works.

The radiation injures or destroys the tumor cells in the area being treated (target tissue). Radiotherapy does not hurt and will take several minutes to complete the treatment. Although radiation may damage both cancer cells and normal cells surrounding the area, most normal cells can recover from the effect of radiation and function properly within 24 hours. While cancer cells have little means of recovering from radiation damages, the goal of radiation therapy is to damage as many cancer cells as possible while limiting harm to nearby healthy tissue. Hence, it is given in many fractions, allowing healthy tissue to recover between fractions.

Conventional and Conformal Radiation Therapy

Conventional radiation therapy is a technique that applies to basic and simple cases. It uses one or two beam directions to irradiate the target without complex shielding, i.e. whole brain, spine metastases etc. It applies multiple beam directions to conform as closely as possible to the target volume to deliver adequate dose to the tumor while minimizing dose to normal tissues. Both conventional and conformal radiation therapy techniques are based on 3D anatomic information to gather dose distributions.

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

IMRT is a state-of-the-art radiation therapy technique, which enables non-uniform fluence of radiation to be delivered to the patient from any given position of beam to optimize the composite dose distribution. IMRT treatment techniques have a superior to conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in terms of sparing of normal tissues and organs enabling higher doses to be delivered to the cancer without increasing the side effects. This has been shown to translate into better cancer cure in many clinical studies.

Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT)

Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) -the latest arc therapy technique - establishes new standards for radiation therapy treatment speed and dose reduction to the patient. Using VMAT, single or multiple radiation beams sweep in uninterrupted arc(s) around the patient, dramatically speeding treatment delivery.

Three-dimensional volume imaging technology (IGRT), which is integrated into Elekta Synergy system, increases the precision of VMAT. This enables to visualize the tumor target at the time of treatment and to guide therapy that both maximizes the radiation dose to the target and minimizes exposure to surrounding healthy tissues.

VMAT technique provides the oncologist with the greatest freedom of choice on how the optimal dose needs to be delivered.

One of the advantages of VMAT is that patients receive the lowest possible dose outside of the targeted area.

Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS)

SRS is a highly precise form of radiation therapy, used primarily to treat tumours and other abnormalities of the brain. It is also used to treat extracranial lesions called stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Stereotactic radiosurgery is a procedure using, focused radiation beams targeting a well-defined tumour relying on detailed imaging, computerized treatment planning and precise treatment set-up with extreme accuracy. It is delivered single or several times depending on the dose prescribed by Oncologist.

Despite its name, stereotactic radiosurgery is a non-surgical procedure that uses highly focused x-rays to treat certain types of tumours, inoperable lesions and as a post-operative treatment to eliminate any leftover tumour tissue or to obliterate abnormal blood vessels in congenital arteriovenous malformations.

Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT)

Human body is unique in a way that it is always moving and this movement reflects the behaviour of the organs, since organs do that, the tumors can also move between treatments due to differences in organ filling or movements while breathing. IGRT is an imaging method on a real-time basis, where an image of the patient is taken and compared to the planning image prior the delivery of the treatment. The advantage of doing an IGRT is the accuracy of the treatment delivery.